Crypto Currencies

Bitcoin was the first Cryptocurrency, and today it is the most valuable as listed in the crypto or digital currency exchanges like Coinbase https://www.coinbase.com/. This trend to create global currencies, which are tradeable globally is driven by advances in secure ICT technology called Blockchain.

To learn more about these development ME School of Finance, Accounting and Business https://meschooloffinanceaccountingbusiness.edupay.app/#

presents several short courses among them

Bitcoin Trading Course – Never Losing Formula


Blockchain Cryptocurrency Bitcoin And Mining


Cryptocurrency Trading For Beginners


Cryptocurrency Trading And ICO Investment Course


Trading Cryptocurrencies In Different Countries


Cryptocurrency 101


Get practice developing your portfolio of Digital and Crypto Currencies

These crypto currencies give pioneers, early adaptors free coins, as they assist the promoters to build their trusted network, hence they tend to give joiners names like verifier, witness, referrer etc. as they use the people credibility. As with any currency virtual or physical the value is determined by scarcity (store of wealth) and medium of exchange, hence when these coins launch on exchanges and are used a a medium of exchange, they need to be in circulation, hence the distribution to members. As with any high risk venture, some of these crypto’s may collapse. while others will create fortunes for the early adaptors.

Pi named after the ratio between the circumference of a circle and its diameter.


You can practice mining an emerging Cryptocurrency Pi, which is designed to be a mass market currency for everyday use developed by 3 Stanford Graduates, 2 of them with a PhD and 1 with an MBA.

Pi is a new digital currency developed by Stanford PhDs, with over 10 million members worldwide. To claim your opportunity to mine Pi, follow this link https://minepi.com/mohebra786 and use my username (mohebra786) as your invitation code.

No cost, expect you time and data to log in every day in the app to start mining, your rate of mining is dependent on your circle.

Initiative Q a Digital currency for a revolutionary new payment system



Another upcoming digital currency which you can earn the currency before it is listed, is the Q initiative to develop a new payment system using a virtual currency, accessible from your mobile phone. You earn because you build their network and give your credibility to the currency to your circle of influence.

Initiative Q is an attempt by ex-PayPal guys to create a new payment system instead of payment cards that were designed in the 1950s. The system uses its own currency, the Q, and to get people to start using the system once it’s ready they are allocating Qs for free to people that sign up now (the amount drops as more people join – so better to join early). Signing up is free and they only ask for your name and an email address. There’s nothing to lose but if this payment system becomes a world leading payment method your Qs can be worth a lot. If you missed getting bitcoin seven years ago, you wouldn’t want to miss this.

Here is my invite link: https://initiativeq.com/invite/ZENW7D7zj

The Bee – On of the most hardworking creations




A copy cat of Pi , similar in most ways. As we cannot say which Cryptocurrency will be the next Bitcoin, we mine several to spread the risk.

Go to Google play store download the App Bee network. Use my ID below as referrer.

Follow the steps to register Referrer ID mohamedebrahim786

Time Stope


A South Korean based Cryptocurrency upstart. Go to google play store, download Time Stope App, requires verifier called a Witness put the ID below

Witness ID mohebra786


••● Trust in Allah But Tie Your Camel ●••

One day Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ) noticed a Bedouin leaving his camel without tying it.

He asked the Bedouin, “Why don’t you tie down your camel?”
The Bedouin answered, “I placed my trust in Allah.”

At that, the Prophet (ﷺ) said, “Tie your camel and place your trust in Allah” (Tirmidhi and Narrated by Anas bin Malik)

The lesson from this hadith is that we need to use all resources available to us to solve our problems, and then trust Allah for the outcome as “Allah will not change the condition of a people until they change what is in themselves.” (Qur’an 13.11)

Get a Free Kindle e-book Risk Management in Islamic Financial Institutions today and the following dates 31st December 2020,

9th January 2021,

18th January 2021

27th January 2021

9th February 2021


#islamicfinance #riskmanagement


Investing in the Stock Market safely

Benjamin Graham the Guru of Warren Buffett, the greatest investor to date, said, “Buy not on optimism, but on arithmetic.” Do you want to learn investing in the stock market safely?

Do the short Course, How To Profit From The Stock Market Safely.


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Business Valuation 105 – Contingent Methods of Valuation

The Black and Scholes option pricing theory (OPT) offers a clue as to how the equity in a firm may be valued. Suppose we recognise the fact, that an equity investor in a geared firm with limited liability has a call option on the underlying assets of the firm. In that case, we have, potentially, a method for valuing the business.  

Conceptually this is an influential theory; the use of option pricing methodology in the valuation of a business creates difficulties in estimating the necessary input parameters into the model.  

Using the real options methodology, one approach is to simulate the future cash flows of a firm given realistic current conditions and estimates of the volatility of key input variables. 

With this, we can generate an overall estimate of the future volatility of the business and then using a specified set of assumptions about the terminal value of the company creates an option value for the business. This modelling approach has many refinements but essentially provides both methods and insights into the valuation of all firms that are financed partly by debt and, in particular, highly leveraged, fast-growing start-up companies.

The limits on the value

Traditionally, the value of the firm in the hands of its investors will have a lower limit equal to the break-up value of the firm, less all external claims on the business (the sum of its short and long term liabilities). Generally, it was argued that once the present value of the firm’s future cash flows (when discounted at the equity investors rate of return) falls below this value then it would be rational for the investors to cut their losses, liquidate the firm and salvage what value they could. However, this relatively simple analysis is tempered in the light of options theory. From an options theory perspective, the equity investors in a geared firm have a call option on the value of the firm’s assets over and above the value of the debt. If the value of the assets should fall below the value of the debt then given limited liability the equity investors could put the firm into members’ voluntary liquidation and walk away leaving the debt holders to bear the loss. Thus in a geared firm, the equity value of the business is the value of a call option on the firm’s net assets. In an ungeared firm, the option value does not exist. Thus the value of the firm to the equity investors is simply the present value of the net cash flows anticipated over the lifetime of the business.

This line of reasoning suggests that valuing a firm depends upon the existence of gearing and that the value of the firm is not simply the present value of its assets in current use minus the amount of its outstanding debt. 

If the firm is not geared, the critical numbers are: (i) the realisable value of its assets and (ii) the present value of the firm’s assets in continued use. The greater of these is its equity value. In the presence of gearing the critical numbers are: (i) the present value of the firm’s assets and (ii) the value of the firm’s outstanding debt. The value of the firm, in this case, will be the value of the option to continue in business.  

This perspective on the value of a firm suggests that the following variables are critical:

(i) The present value of the firm’s assets in use. Generally, the greater this value, the greater will be the value of a call on those assets at exercise.

(ii) The value of the outstanding debt (the exercise value of the firm) – generally the lower this value, the more valuable the call becomes until at the limit of zero leverage the call value equals the present value of the firm’s assets in use.

(iii) The term to maturity of the debt – the longer the time, the greater the value of the equity call. 

(iv) The risk-free rate of return used to discount the exercise value multiplied by the probability of exercise. Given the inverse relationship between exercise value and firm value, this would suggest that the higher the rate, the greater the call value. However, this is unlikely to be the case overall given that the present value of the firm’s assets (i) will be determined in part by the discount rate and that this in its turn is partly influenced by the risk-free rate.

(v) The expected volatility of the present value of the firm’s assets, which leads to the somewhat paradoxical result that the higher the uncertainty about future cash flows, the more valuable is the call option on those cash flows.

Valuing the firm as an option

In the more general valuation context, a firm’s equity should not be traded, or we may have reason to believe that the correct valuation is considerably different from that revealed by the share price.  

Schwartz and Moon (2000) developed a procedure for the contingent valuation of equities using option pricing and simulation methods. 

They used as their case study Amazon.com which at that time had been in business for just over three years. The company was still not profitable in the conventional sense but was growing its market and its revenues at a rapid rate. 

In March 1996 the quarterly sales of Amazon.com were $0.875 million. By September 1999 its sales had risen to $355.8 million. Here, in outline, is the procedure Schwartz and Moon followed:

A stochastic model was created of the firm’s revenue-generating process and its cost structure. This model contained a drift term which reflects the expected rate of growth in its revenues and a stochastic period reflecting the degree of uncertainty about that growth rate. The expenditure model reflected not only the company’s fixed and variable cost structure but also the impact of taxation upon the company’s profits. 

Refinements of this stochastic model included a mean-reverting process to the estimated long-run rate of revenue growth as well as a procedure for carrying forward losses for tax purposes from one period to the next.  

A bankruptcy condition was imposed were given a starting amount of cash bankruptcy was defined as the point when the amount of cash and other monetary assets reached zero.

A time horizon was defined for the simulation of the firm’s future cash flows, and a terminal value invoked. In their study, Schwartz and Moon, set the final value as ten times EBITDA. Another approach would be to take the net cash flow figure and to capitalise the following year’s projected earnings at the risk-free rate of return less the terminal growth rate of profits. However, the time horizon should be such that by that time, the equity holder’s option is so far into the money that there is zero default risk.  

A simulation is then undertaken to generate a large number of cash flow paths. In the simulated series of quarterly cash flows for Amazon assuming a starting revenue of £356million per quarter, a growth rate of 11 per cent a quarter and a starting volatility of revenues of 10 per cent per quarter. The factors were built-in, and the firm’s starting balance of cash resources available was assumed to be £200 million.

The key point to note is that a number of the price paths had been generated one of which shows default in period 5. Indeed, depending upon the software used, a model can be built which will permit many hundreds of such price paths to be generated. The model can be refined to reflect a wide range of different circumstances: different patterns of growth and the decline in growth as the firm matures, other cost structures, the correlation between variables, differing tax regimes and different initial conditions. From the simulation, the volatility of the cash-flow projection can then be determined, and the likely default in each time period determined. This volatility, expressed as the standard deviation of the company’s future cash flows, can then be adjusted to a continuous-time basis and a valuation of the options component of the company’s valuation determined.

The challenge with this approach of valuation lies in estimating the initial volatilities of the future revenue growth and, in later variants of the model, the volatilities of future costs. 

Nevertheless, the technique does offer a potential route for valuing companies that are in their early stages of growth and which rely upon substantial investment in intangible assets. 


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UK Growth Plan mini Budget September 2022 Positives for Businesses (updated)

Corporation tax rate to remain at 19% . This is a reversal of the increase to 25% from 6th April 2023. A reward to businesses which create jobs and goods and services. This is now reversed by the new Chancellor. We weep corporation tax to remain 25%

Shareholders who get paid dividend have the rate at basic band reduced from 8.75% back to 7.5%. A great incentive to entrepreneurs who own and manage their own business using Limited company structure.This is reversed. We cry 8.75% Dividend tax.

Infrastructuredevelopments of Freetrade zone and Investment zones, with various time limited tax incentives.

Photo by ROMAN ODINTSOV on Pexels.com
Photo by Max Vakhtbovych on Pexels.com

#unitedkingdom #birmingham #growthplan2022 #sme #business #commercialfinance

Limits increased for employee Company share ownership schemes and Seed Enterprise investment scheme.

Annual Investment Allowance in plant and machinery between £200,000 to £ 1,000,000 made permanent. 100% tax Allowance

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Migration rules changes to attract skilled staff to fill shortage in certain roles.

Photo by Andrea Piacquadio on Pexels.com

100 new Oil and gas licenses to be issued to ensure supply of oil and gas in the UK 🇬🇧. Oil and gas franking might be controversial environmentallly, however if UK Oil and Gas supplies can be secured, even if these will be sold at global market prices in the UK 🇬🇧, these profits will be retained in the UK 🇬🇧, the balance of payments strain to pay foreign countries for oil and gas will be eliminated or reduced, strengthing the GBP and the dependence on foreign countries for our supply of Oil and gas will be eliminated.

Learn more about Investment Zones and Freeports in the UK. Click the link https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/investment-zones-in-england/investment-zones-in-england#time-limited-tax-incentives

What are Freeports?

Freeports operate as secure customs zones, usually located at ports or airports, where business can be carried out inside a country’s land border, but where different customs rules apply. 

Countries around the world had adapted this basic model by adding different elements to create their own bespoke Freeports based on the Special Economic Zone (SEZ) concept. Each combines a mixture of customs flexibilities, to provide relief from duties, import taxes and administrative burdens; tax measures to incentivise private investment; regulatory flexibilities; and investment in infrastructure, all concentrated in the geographical area around the Freeport.

The UK Government has opted for a bespoke Freeport model which aims to achieve three objectives:

  • To establish Freeports as national hubs for global trade and investment across the UK
  • To promote regeneration and job creation
  • To create hotbeds for innovation
  • The successful Freeport bids in England are East Midlands Airport, Felixstowe & Harwich, Humber, Liverpool City Region, Plymouth & South Devon, Solent, Thames and Teesside.


The free ports and investment Zones, regulations and tax incentives which will come with them. We look forward to the tax measures (time limited) for companies . It has been prefential free trade areas or zones which have made cities/states like Dubai (UAE), Singapore 🇸🇬 and Mauritius 🇲🇺 trading giants. The United Kingdom has historically grown to be a global power due to trade, which it needed to protect using its Navy, which enabled it to become a great Global power.

The UK under the leadership of His Majesty King Charles III is likely to develop and strengthen relationships of trade and finance amoung Commonwealth countries. The ties of the British Crown with the Commonwealth was emphasised during the the Funeral of her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II. The free trade agreements with Commonwealth countries should be aggregated into a Commonwealth wide Free Trade Common market.

Why the UK is a great Investment destination

The Sterling pound is currently weak against the US Dollar and other global currencies. So invest in the UK now.

● Once the francked oil and gas sites are operational once again (previously banned) and the 100 new Oil and gas licensees start producing, the balance of payments dynamics will change and the profits of the Oil and gas companies will remain in the UK. This will significantly strengthen the Sterling Pound. ● The UK financial services sector will be deregulated from EU financial services constraints, making London once again the most competitive Global financial centre. ● The UK has one of the most favorable tax rates of the developed world 19% . And Dividend to foreign resident individuals and companies are tax free. ●The Freeports and Investment zones are going to increase the value of goods and services produced or traded in the UK. Hence, the GDP will increase significantly. ● The post brexit freetrade agreements signed with Commonwealth countries like 🇰🇪 Kenya and other East African community countries, will increase intra-commonwealth trade.


My sincere hope would be that the entire Commonwealth becomes a free trade area or common market.

These are great opposrtunities for the business community in the UK. I believe we as humans need positive reinforcement to change behaviour. We need more businesses to enable more of our people have jobs. These measures will create a positive virtuous circle 🔵 leading to Growth of the UK economy. The GBP will become more competitive as our balance of payments position will improve. I have a feeling 😕 we will have a more productive and prosperous United Kingdom. I pray for a golden era under the Golden Lady Liz Truss.

Contact us for funding needs to support your business


UK Growth plan 2022 Positives for Real Estate sector


Stamp duty land tax (SDLT) nil rate band expanded to GBP 250,000 from GBP 125,000. So no stamp duty land tax is payable if the property you buy costs less than GBP 250,000.

If you are a first time buyer, then the Stamp duty land tax (SDLT) threshold increased from GBP 300,000 to GBP 450,000.

These are positives to make the initial purchase of a house 🏠 cheaper. However, the interest rates are going up not only in the UK but globally, would make house purchase cost more expensive.  Furthermore, rising borrowing costs, all things being equal would lead to a drop in property prices. Hence, house buyers who take advantage of the reduction in cost of purchasing a house, may have an unintended consequence of the drop in price of the house. Hence, lender’s would be requiring higher deposits.  This might not happen as the Financial market have given the GBP a beating against the US Dollar, which would lure foreign investors to invest in UK Real Estate 🤔.

I would have expected that full borrowing costs would be made available against individual (buy to let)  rental income, as before. Currently, individual rental property owners can only claim 20% of interest cost, as credit against tax payable. This could be considered discrimination against individual ownership of rental property by individuals as opposed to  rental property owned by companies, which have full borrowing cost allowable for tax purposes.


The additional 3% stamp duty land tax remains payable.

However, the announced increase of the corporation tax rate from 19% to 25% from 6th April 2023 was reversed.

The dividend tax rate on basic band was reduced from 8.75% to 7.5%. This gives shareholders more cash in hand.

There are investment zones with significant tax incentives. Investment Zones will comprise both Commercial , industrial and residential development in the designated area. This will lead to a more buoyant real estate sector.

Things to look forward

The free ports and investment Zones, regulations and tax incentives which will come with them. We look forward to the tax measures (time limited) for companies . It has been prefential free trade areas or zones which have made cities/states like Dubai (UAE), Singapore 🇸🇬 and Mauritius 🇲🇺 trading giants. The United Kingdom has historically grown to be a global power due to trade, which it needed to protect using its Navy, which enabled it to become a great Global power.

The eight English Freeport locations announced are:

Another thing to develop and strengthen is greater trade and finance between Commonwealth countries. The ties of the British Crown with the Commonwealth was emphasised during the the Funeral of her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II. The free trade agreements with Commonwealth countries should be aggregated into a Commonwealth wide Free Trade Common market.


These Freeports and Investment zones will spur real estate investment and create opportunities for commercial, retail, industrial, residential development. In Birmingham the investment zone is going to be in the Solihull area.

We remain positive and optimistic about growth and opportunity for trade, investment and finance in the UK. Foreign investors should take advantage of the weak Sterling Pound – GBP against the US Dollar and invest in the UK. As growth will be realised in the mid-term, and the GBP will strengthen significantly against the US Dollar and other major currency in 2-3 years.

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NFL 2022 Week 3 Odds, Pro Picks And Betting Insight Including Bills-Dolphins And Chiefs-Colts

NFL 2022 Week 3 odds and betting info and insight from the top sportsbooks and pro handicappers. Key games and most betting action include Buffalo at Miami and Kansas City at Indianapolis. Odds, insight and information you can bet on.

NFL 2022 Week 3 Odds, Pro Picks And Betting Insight Including Bills-Dolphins And Chiefs-Colts

Islamic Financing: Mudharabah

Mudarabah financing is a kind of partnership where one partner contributes money (i.e. the financier) to another (entrepreneur, who contributes his expertise, skill, knowledge, labour, idea), for investing in a commercial enterprise. The investment comes from the first partner who is called “Rab-ul-Maal” while the management and work is an exclusive responsibility of the other, who is called “Mudarib” and the profits generated are shared in a predetermined ratio.

Islamic Financing: Mudharabah

ISTISNA : Explained and Uses

Introduction Istisna’ is a sale transaction where an item is transacted before it comes into existence. It is an order to a manufacturer/contractor to manufacture/construct a specific item or asset for the purchaser (borrower). The manufacturer/contractor uses his own material to manufacture the required goods. In Istisna’, price must be fixed with the consent of all parties […]

ISTISNA : Explained and Uses


Definition and classification of Musharakah The literary meaning of Musharakah is “sharing”. The root of the term “Musharakah” in Arabic comes from the word “Shirkah”, which means ‘being a partner’. Under Islamic jurisprudence, Musharakah means; “a joint enterprise formed for conducting some business in which all partners share the profit according to a specific ratio […] […]


Islamic Modes of Finance: Salam Alias Deferred Delivery Contracts

What is Salam? Bai‘Salam or deferred delivery sale is a forward contract wherein the price was paid in advance at the time of making the contract for the prescribed goods to be delivered at a later date. Unlike Murabaha (Cost plus Financing) and Ijarah (Lease), Salam was originally used as a financing mechanism for small […]

Islamic Modes of Finance: Salam Alias Deferred Delivery Contracts

Mombasa Business Awards

Ace Group of Companies places 2nd Runners up in Best Medium Business Category at the ceremony held at the Sarova Whitesands Resort & Spa on 9th December 2016   Ace Group of Companies have been honoured to be nominated for for the Best Medium Business Award and Decade of Excellence in Business Award – Mombasa […]

Mombasa Business Awards


“Ijarah” is a term of Islamic fiqh. Lexically, it means “to give something on rent”. This type of Ijarah relates to the usufructs of assets and not to the services of human beings. ‘Ijarah’ in this sense means “to transfer the usufruct of a particular property to another person in exchange for rent claimed from […]

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